Semantics and Semantic Change - basic concepts-opracowanie

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Basic concepts
-word - the smallest (unlike phrase) significant (unlike phoneme) unit of a given language that is internally stable (unlike sentence) and potentially mobile (unlike morpheme).
-It is usually separated by spaces in writing and by pauses in speech (or at least rarely split by a space or pause).
-NOTICE: Under this definition, really is a word but blackboard is not.
-That's because blackboard can be split into smaller significant units.
-Our intuition would be, however, that both the former and the latter function as independent words, first as an adverb, second as a noun.
-word semantics - deals with semantic properties of words and relationships within sets of semantically related words in and between particular languages.
-e.g colour terms in Polish and English: Polish granatowy, niebieski and błękitny where English has to use adjective modification: navy blue, (dark) blue and sky blue.
-The focus of word semantics is on the sense of words (the way people relate a word to external world and to other words) not on their reference (external world).
-NOTICE: strictly speaking word here means a lexeme. After all jump, jumped and jumping may be considered different words but in fact they are variants of a single underlying concept, JUMP.
-denotation (extension, designation) - “objective” relationship between a word and the reality to which it refers, independent of context and situation.
-Is is a central part of meaning.
-Usually, it may be analysed into language-independent “minimal” meaning components. Such analysis is called componential analysis.
-boy | +HUMAN - ADULT + MALE
-girl | +HUMAN - ADULT - MALE
-man | +HUMAN + ADULT + MALE
-woman | +HUMAN + ADULT - MALE
-male | +- HUMAN +- ADULT + MALE
-connotation_1 (affective) - subjective associations aroused by a word.
-e.g denotation of night is period from sunset to sunrise but the connotation might be, depending on your experience, e.g. lonely or romantic
-connotation_2 - the set of features connected with a word.
-equivalence - relationship of semantic (denotational and connotational) and cultural similarity between lexical items from two languages, as established by:
-componential analysis of their meaning or/and by
-“procedure of matching them on the basis of detailed analyses of numerous equivalent text written or spoken in both languages” (Krzeszowski 1990:89)
Concepts -NOTICE: It will often happen that a detailed component analysis for a Polish word and its English equivalent will show some differences between them
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