THE MIDDLE AGES NORMAN RULE 1066-1154 (Henry II new dynasty - Plantagenets)
Norman Coat of Arms
Norman Family Tree
WILLIAM I THE CONQUEROR
England was subdued (podbita) by him; he used England mainly to take money from it. He spent most time in Normandy, not in England. Why? Normandy could be raided by rivals, they were not happy that William became King of England - he was more powerful.
William's rivals used his eldest son - Robert against him. He was involved in number of intrigues. Feudal system made William really powerful, king had a number of privileges:
When a noble died, his land usually went to his son, but he had to pay money to the king first
If the son was below 18, king used the land till his 18 birthday
If all nobles died, land went back to the king
Domesday Book 1086 - greatest William's achievement. His people went from shire to shire and they wrote down main land holders, so William could know how taxes he could get from people. Name: Day of Judgment = doom; book reminded people Day of Judgment, that's the origin of the name.
William was the king in a foreign country so he had to be very strict to gain respect as a strong king. He punished with no mercy (mutilation - okaleczanie). He also built castles and churches. CUSTOM: ancestor land (in Normandy) should go to eldest son - so in the case of William - to Robert. England was conquered land, so it should go to second son - William.
WILLIAM II RUFUS - KING OF ENGLAND (Rufus rebellion of barons who supported Robert. William repelled an invasion by the Scots. Robert needed money to join the crusade, so he decided to give Normandy to William and borrow money from him. He promised that, after return he will give the money back and William give him the land back. William, unlike his father didn't like the church, he built castles. King could use the money from church. William was accidentally killed by an arrow (perhaps it was a coincidence that Henry - his brother - was with him). After Williams death, Henry rushed to Westminster and got crown.
Henry I of England was called the Lion of Justice - he was strict but fair. He established the Charter of Liberties, in which he promised to rule the country fair. When Robert was back from crusade, he was flung into prison. He died - once again Normandy and England was joined - under the rule of Henry I.
… chose Wiliam, Robert could punish them and vice versa. 1088 - William realized that he is in danger -> rebellion of barons who supported Robert. William repelled an invasion by the Scots. Robert needed money to join the crusade, so he decided to give Normandy to William and borrow money from him. He promised that, after return he will give the money back and William give him the land back. William…
… he promised to rule the country fair. When Robert was back from crusade, he was flung into prison. He died -> once again Normandy and England was joined - under the rule of Henry I. HENRY I ACHIEVEMENTS:
English civil offices - helped Henry I to govern the country
Exchanger (kasjer walutowy) - financial office, they wrote down the information about money
King's justice was extended, judicial system
He introduced itinerant judges (travelling judges) - people travel from shire to shire and solve conflicts
He developed idea of common law
A tragedy - Henry's only legitimate (prawowity, ślubny) son died while crossing the English Channel. Henry was left with only a girl - Mathilda. He was married to German Emperor, but when her husband died, she returned to England. Henry maid his barons swear that…
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