JOHN THE LACKLAND - treacherous (zdradziecki, podstępny), his rule was oppressive (oparty na ucisku). He was in conflict with:
1204 - John more and more unpopular. French king invaded Normandy, people lost the land. English nobles paid high taxes and king should protect their lands, but he didn't. Prices were rising very quickly.
1209 - king John quarrelled with the Pope. The quarrelled who should be appointed the Archbishop of Canterbury. Pope declared that John is not a rightful king. King's response to that was to confiscate all church estates.
1214 - he allied himself with the Emperor of Germany and attacked Philip II (French king) and he lost Angevin Empire. That infuriated English barons and 1215 they captured London and forced John to sign peace Magna Carta (or the Great Charter) - it limited king's power and abuse of the feudal system. English feudalism is coming to an end (Nobles rebelled against John - they should be loyal). John repudiated (wyrzekać się) the document and it was not lawful.
1216 May - Louis VIII invaded London, obliged John I to accept baron's demands. Civil war was avoided only because John died.
HENRY III - John I's son. Tied by Magna Carta, he was a child, so he was under the council of nobles which ruled on his behalf. He restored his inheritance (England) and got rid of the French Dauphin (przyszły król). He bribed Louis VIII to leave the country.
1224 - Louis VIII took control over Poitou. Henry was left only with Gascony in France. Empire shrank.
1259 - Henry III Treaty of Paris. In Gascony he was a vassal to a French king. He favoured Frenchmen, appointed them to important posts. Englishmen organised opposition on and off since 1233. They threatened to use force. 1258 - Provisions (postanowienia) of Oxford - limited king's power. New council half chosen by the king and half chosen by the nobles.
Parliament which meets 3 times a year
Henry III signed it and repudiated (just like his father). It was not lawful.
SIMON DE MONTFORT - married Henry III's widowed sister. Nobles decided to oppose the king (once again they acted as a class). He was a leader.
1258 - council of nobles called “parliament” took control of the treasury (state money).
Baron's war 1264 - issue: king's right to choose foreigners to be his counsellors (doradcy). 1264 - Battle of Lewes - king in prison. First attended parliamentary government.
Edward (Henry's son) escaped from custody (areszt śledczy), he swore to reform the realm (=kingdom). Many magnates decided to desert de Montfort. Edward had more power. De Montfort was killed by Edward 1265 Evesham. Henry III was restored, Previsions of Oxford were annulled.