TUDOR MONARCHS - THE ENGLISH RENAISSANCE
Henry - Lancaster - Margaret Beaufort - his mother was John of Gaunt daughter.
War of Roses - Richard III believed to has murdered his nephews, Henry Tudor was outraged (oburzony) with that. He landed in England, defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth field. HENRY VII - started dynasty of the Tudors. His claim was shaky (wątpliwy, niepewny), so he married Elisabeth of York (daughter of Edward III, sister of 2 boys murdered in the Tower of London).
Emblem of Tudor dynasty:
Outside: red rose
Inside: white one
Henry VII followed matrimonial diplomacy. (Margaret + Scottish, Arthur + Spanish etc.). More alliances. He successfully dealt with Yorkist claimants to the throne. Efficient finances, wealth (taxes, fines). He saved money and developed trade. He avoided military conflicts. Trade Agreement with Netherlands. He managed to get the country out of economic crises. Peace and prosperity. He built a fleet of merchant ships and ordered modern weapons made from improved steel.
1487 - Court of the Star Chamber - punished nobles (it was very unusual at that time!). Henry VII encouraged use of heavy fines as punishment. He forbade anybody to had armed man.
New nobility from merchants and lesser gentry (szlachta).
Chapel of Westminster Abbey
He was half-Welsh, so he paid due honour (należny honor) Welsh heritage. He gave Welsh land, respected them, his eldest son was the prince of Wales.
When he died he left a lot of money in the coffin.
HENRY VIII Eldest son of Henry VII - Arthur - died, so Henry VIII got the throne.
His court was centre of arts and humanist studies.
He joined Holy League against France (France conquered more lands in Italy - it destroyed balance of France-GB-Spain).
He wrote a tract against Luther's theses and got the title Fidei Defensor - F.D. (it's on every coin in GB). Title of tract: “Defence of the Seven Sacraments”.
CATHERINE OF ARAGON
His first brother married her, but he died. She couldn't give him a son. Cardinal Thomas Wolesey was to persuade the Poe to grant the divorce. Pope was controlled by Charles V (Catherine's nephew) - he refused. Henry VIII blamed Wolesey for that, and he was replaced by Thomas More (“Utopia”). Wolesey died of natural causes before being executed. He was the last priest to be minister of the king.
At some moment Thomas was afraid of Henry VIII and resigned.
… a political change. 1536-40 - Henry VIII needed money and he decided about Dissolution of Monasteries (it was supervised by Thomas Cromwell). Treasure grew 3 times, and land was sold to gentry. Huge and privileged clerical society was swept away. This situation provoked risings -> Pilgrimage of Grace. Rebels supported traditional religion and wanted Thomas Cromwell to be removed. But it was not coordinated…
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