ELISABETH I - Mary I's half-sister and heiress. No children. Under her reign one of most important issues was question of religion.
Mary was devoted catholic, Elisabeth was different. She wanted to find sensible solution, to satisfy both: Catholics and Protestants. Unfortunately she failed because of political situation. There was a constant danger of invasion from catholic Spain and France.
Elisabeth I never got married, she decided to stay single. Her closest living relative was Mary Stuart. She was brought up in France, and she married French king's son. Then Mary's husband was murdered, and she decided to marry his murderer - Bothwell. Scottish people were shocked by her scandalous behaviour and imprisoned her. 1585 - Mary escaped to England. Elisabeth knew that Mary was dangerous, so she kept her in prison. But this motivated Catholics to plot against Elisabeth - so, it was dangerous, too.
1587 - Elisabeth executed Mary. When Mary was still alive, she had named Philip of Spain as her heir to the throne of England. In this way she gave Philip claim to invade England.
By 1585 - Elisabeth believed that Catholics were enemies.
1588 - Elisabeth defeated Spanish Armada (it was her greatest achievement). Elisabeth used events to strengthen her position and image of the loving queen. Events of Royal Progress - they travelled across the country with great pomp and celebration. It also improved general confidence of the nation.
1601 - Poor law - poor people protected in a way. Money raised to provide them food, housing.
ELISABETH I'S THEATRE - based in London (the Globe, the Swan, the Rose). William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe.
Schools: Rugby, Eton - correct use of English was emphasised. TUDOR REIGN
Great artistic period (under influence of Greek and Roman models)
Protestants from The Netherlands and Germany were invited to England
Hans Holbein Younger
Anton van Dyke
By 17th century literacy increased, half of population was literate
William Caxton - printed books in Westminster
THE ELISABETH I'S AGE OF EXPLORATION
Henry VII - Built a large fleet of merchant ships
Henry VIII worships and guns (English guns were best in Europe)
Elisabeth followed Henry VII policy MOTIVES WHICH PROMPTED AGE OF EXPLORATION:
Scientific improvements in navigation
Crusading spirit (heather = pagan) - wanted do Christianise them
Great opportunity to become rich, powerful
AGE OF EXPLORATION:
At first were dominated by Portugal and Spain. Spanish invasion - claim to the English throne
1588 - glorious victory (bad weather conditions really helped the English to won)
TRADING EMPIRE - 2 POLICIES:
Encouraging English sailors to destroy Spanish ships (with gold, silver etc.). “Sea dogs” - sailors but also pirates, very adventurous people
Sir Walter Raleigh
Encouraging traders to settle abroad and start English colonies. Sir Walter Raleigh started colony and…
Eastland Company - Scandinavia and Baltic area
Selling slaves from West Africa to Spanish in America. 1650 - Beginning of SLAVERY
HISTORIA - WYKŁAD - 24.11.2011
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