1332 Edward II divided Parliament:
House of Commons
House of Lords
English became official language of Parliament (earlier it was French).
1337 - Edward II declared he is a rightful heir to the French crown, which began 100 war.
CHIVALRY = a code of a perfect knight.
Perfect, brave, honourable knights - idea of chivalry which was connected to King Arthur and a Knights of the Round Table. King Arthur was Celtic ruler, he fought with Anglo-Saxons.
The perfect knight should:
Fight for his good name
Defend any lady in need
Participate in wars (it could bring fame and glory to him)
Culmination of chivalry - 1348 Order of the Garter. Motto: Shame on him who thinks it's evil. Order of the Garter is given on St. George's Day (a patron of England). Membership is limited to Sovereign, Prince of Wales and no more than 24 members of companions (towarzyszy). It also comprises (obejmuje) supernumerary (nadliczbowe) knights and ladies. Edward III devoted himself to unification and strengthening the country. He had good advisers . Consultative monarchy (monarchia doradcza). One of his advisers was Goeffrey Chaucer - Controller of Customs (poet, author, philosopher). Edward III was surrounded by people like him.
1348 - Black Death 1/3 of population was dead. End of serfdom (pańszczyzna), because only few people left who could work on lands. They could ask for money for their work. Landlords let out their lands to farmers, they worked there even to life span (długość trwania życia). New class was founded - yeomen.
RICHARD II (1377-99)
When Black Princie died, throne gone to the Richard II. Problem of social discontent (niezadowolenie). He was only a child, so his uncle - John of Gaunt ruled in fact.
PEASANT'S REFOLT Poll tax - for every person over 15, when it was increased for the 3rd time, poor people protested. The Peasant's Revolt 1331 leader: Wat Tyler.
Richard II decided to negotiate with Wat Tyler. He agreed to:
Abolition (zniesienie) of serfdom
Fixed low (sztywne prawo) rent for land
General amnesty for all the rebels
Wat Tyler was killed. Richard II didn't keep promises. He said famous words: “Serfs you are, and serfs you should remain”.
1388 - the lords opposed the King. Richard II imprisoned John of Gaunt (he shouldn't do that, John helped him many times). Other nobles including Henry Bolingbroke (John's son) made full scale attack of the king's households. Richard II never forgot it and never forgave it. He went to Ireland to recruit private army.
When he was back some nobles were murdered and Henry was banished. People felt fear of the king's power. ... zobacz całą notatkę