Wykład - Possesion of William I. Kingdom extended:

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Map -1066 - Possesion of William I. Kingdom extended: England & Normandy. The same monarch: William was King of England & Duke of Normandy.
Complicated political situation with France: William was the vassal to king of France, so he should be loyal to him (he could not rebel). BUT, he was also King of England, so when he was in England, as a king of England he could do whatever he wanted.
The conquest started very long conflict between France and England (they quarreled about Normandy). WALES
Normans conquered only in the border areas (they didn't get to the North and West of Wales). Norman lords built a lot of castles. In areas not settled by Normans, there were Celts.
NEW RULING DYNASTY - NORMAN KINGS
The problem with them, was that for them England was only a conquered land, they didn't love it. There were interested in Normandy, their home land, especially William I followed anty-English policy. He could not trust English, so he treated England as a source of money.
English bishops and nobles were replaced by Norman clergy and lords.
NEW ARISTOCRACY
There were many revolts against William I. When he put them down (stłumić) he had to punish rebels (by killing, devastating and confiscating their lands). He gave the lands to those who were loyal - his lords. It was a kind of bribery (przekupstwo, dawanie łapówek). By 1088 English aristocracy was gone.
NEW LANGUAGE - FRENCH
That language was the language of upper-class. Triallingualism - well-educated English knew 3 languages: Latin, English and French. Peasants didn't know French, they used their own names. For example: most of animals were slotted, used as a food to the Normans. They wanted to know which animals they were eating, so e.g. pig, chicken etc. But they named meat with their own Norman words, e.g. pork, beef etc. that's why the names of animals and names of meat are different in English. NEW CULTURE
Music, literature, architecture (Romanesque, Gothic). Norman built in gothic style (Winchester, Norwich, Durham, London. High arches, circular windows.
NEW LAWS
Royal forests - before that law, all forests were public. Everyone could go and hunt there, also poor people, which got the food from the forests. William I wanted forests to be his, so he established boundaries (granice) of royal forests. It was a heavy blow (cios) for the poor.
No lord can built a castle without king's consent (zgoda) - in France people could built castles without king's permission, and they could became more powerful. William knew the situation in France and decided to prevent such situation in England.
SOCIETY
French names (Richard, William, Robert)


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… could built castles without king's permission, and they could became more powerful. William knew the situation in France and decided to prevent such situation in England.
SOCIETY
French names (Richard, William, Robert)
Skilled workers
Titles: earl/duke - they were Norman
FEUDALISM
Domesday Book - survey (spis powszechny ludności)
Scheme of feudalism in Britain
Everybody was tied to the king by the…
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