THE ANGLO-SAXON INVASION
The year 449 has been traditionally accepted as the year of the Germanic conquest of the Island, although Germanic raids had been harassing (nękać) Britain for over two centuries prior to (przed czymś, wcześniej od czegoś) 449. 449 - The “Old English” begins.
King Arthur - fought the Saxon in early 6 century.
Saxons - Germanic tribe from Europe. Jutes, Saxon, Angles - 3 anglo-saxon groups.
Angles - NE coast
Jutes - Kent, Isle of Wight. Saxons - along East Coast
WHAT HAPPENED TO THE CELTS?
They were driven far west into the mountains called by the Saxons “Walles” = the land of the foreigners. Saxons wanted to keep the Celts away, so they built Offa's Dyke - defense wall.
Some of them were driven into Cornwall, low lands of Scotland, many escaped to continental Europe
6 century - Saxons were pushing westwards and northwards. Roman Britain was forgotten, and Anglo-Saxon England came into being.
650 AD - The Heptarchy - 7 Saxon kingdoms (Sussex, Wessex, Kent etc.).
WHY THE ANGLO-SAXON CAME:
Rich land and wealth
The early Anglo-Saxon were NOT city dwellers, they were farmers. They lived in villages.
RESULTS OF ANGLO-SAXON INVASION:
Destruction of Roman civilization
New geographical division
End of Celtic language - Anglo-Saxon language and culture
Days of the week were named after Germanic gods e.g. Thursday - Thor
New place names -ing, -ham, -ton, surnames indicated something
New administration: shires (coinciding with the modern “county”) ruled by sherrifs
ANGLO-SAXON INSTITUTIONS (they founded them once they settled):
The King Council - Witan (nobbles, bishops, officials, king and his family). They met irregularly to advise the king, to choose the new king, to discuss business, law war and peace. It was an established body and a force to be reckoned with.
MANORIAL (dworski) SYSTEM AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT
There were manors (big house) in every district, where local lord lived with his serfs (chłop pańszczyźniany). They were working on the lord's land. The lord acted as a local judge as well. In manor people also paid taxes and gathered before war.
MAIN SOURCES CONCERNING ANGLO-SAXON TIMES limited archeological evidence (limited because Anglo-Saxon used wood)
Ecclesiastical History of the English People (written by monk Venerable Bede)
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle - saxon annals (roczniki)
Ethelred died, Cnut (or Canute) - Danish king had controlled a lot of England already, so Witan decided to give England to Cnut (1014-1040).
1042 - Wessex rule was restored (przywrócony). Edward the Confessor (1042-66) - he was back from Normandy. He was not interested in being king, he was interested in church. Westminster Abbey - he started building it.
1066 - he died. He had no children (heir - potomek…
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