Colonies in the past were everywhere. When USA became independent problems with colonies began.
1839 - report on discontent in Canadian Colonies
1850s - the system of responsible government (it is still bounding) - country governs itself but recognizes British monarch as a head of the country. Later this system spread to other countries. British were afraid that Canada would do the same as US did.
AFTER WORLD WAR I
The name was then: The British Commonwealth
The Irish Free State
1931 - Statue of Westminster
AFTER WORLD WAR II
India - started “passive” fight for independence. Mohandas Gandhi. 1947 - India (Hindu) and Pakistan (Muslims) became independent
India is still member of Commonwealth, Pakistan left but then rejoined.
Colonies which did NOT join: Burma, Yemen, Cameroon (but this country joined not long time ago)
Colonies which joined and then left:
Rhodesia - white people ruled there but black people were still majority. Commonwealth supported rule of black people, so white rulers of Rhodesia decided to leave.
Ireland - left when became a republic.
South Africa - left when Commonwealth criticised apartheid. Last entry: Rwanda. COMMONWEALTH - free association of about 50 independent states. No written law - but there are some intergovernmental organisations, like The Commonwealth Secretariat.
No elected parliament
No supreme body
The Queen of the UK = The Head of the Commonwealth
British influence on education, law, parliamentary procedures (it's because when those countries were colonies, they accepted British system)
Secretariat does not rule, it only coordinates. Cannot give any orders or ask people to do something..
Based in London
Staffed by people from all countries
Coast paid by member governments (contribution of the basis of income and population) UK 30%, Canada 16%, Australia 8%
Promotes consultation, distribution of information
Organizes meeting, conferences, training courses
Republics: India, Ghana, Malta, Cyprus
Dominions: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Jamaica
Olympic disciplines. Every 4 years in one of Commonwealth countries. This is the 3rd largest event in the world.
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