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THE BRITISH EMPIRE 16th-17th century
One quarter of the world's population by 1922
approximately a quarter of the Earth's total land area
territories and trading posts
“The Sun never sets on the British Empire”
Copper (miedź), tea, tin (cyna), cotton, rubber (guma)
Revenue for British Treasure
Export markets for Britain (limited competition)
Dumping grounds for surplus population (miejsce zsyłki dla nadwyżki populacji)
ORIGINS - 15th century - the Age of Discovery (Tudors):
Henry VII Shipbuilding expanded
Modern merchant marine system
John Cabot (no colony founded, but land called Newfoundland) - he wanted to discover route to Asia via the North Atlantic
Navy - warships
Docks and lighthouses (latarnie morskie)
Elisabeth I Sir Francis Drake, Walter Raleigh - lack of food, severe weather conditions, conflicts with Indians
James I - British Empire really took shape under his reign in 17th century
1607 - Jamestown
1620 - Plymouth - by puritans
Maryland - Catolics heaven 1634
Rhode Island - all religions 1636
Connecticut - Congregationalists 1639
1664 - capture of New Amsterdam (Dutch) - New York
Pennsylvania - William Penn Materials: tabacoo, cotton, rice - from South; naval materials, fur - from North
What attracted English? Agricultural land
English Hudson's Bay Company established forts and trading posts - quite often attacked by the French (fur trade - competition).
Smaller islands of the
Carribean (= The West Indies) were colonised: St. Kitts, Barbados, Nevis, Jamaica, Bahamas. Important sugar plantations - slavery and slave trade (from West coast of Africa to the Caribbean).
Abolitionist movement, The Slave Trade Act 1807 - abolished slave trade, still slavery was OK.
1 August 1837 - Emancipation Day, it is still celebrated in many countries as national day.
18th century - England rose to be most dominant country (their main rival was France)
THE WAR OF SPANISH SUCCESSION 1702-14
Queen Anne - king of Spain left Spain to a grandson of the King of France. By this agreement France and Spain would be united and more powerful, which was dangerous. Britain, Portugal and The Netherlands opposed (fights took place also in USA - called “Queen Anne's War”).
Treaty of Utrecht (1714) - British Empire larger. They gained territories around Hudson's Bay, Gibraltar,
… the King of France. By this agreement France and Spain would be united and more powerful, which was dangerous. Britain, Portugal and The Netherlands opposed (fights took place also in USA - called “Queen Anne's War”).
Treaty of Utrecht (1714) - British Empire larger. They gained territories around Hudson's Bay, Gibraltar, Minorca (till 1802), monopoly of the South America slave track.
The Peace of…
… Islands, Mauritius, New South Wales, Malta, Gold Coast, Trinidad, Tobago and in 1842 - Hong Kong Island (till 1997).
AFRICA: end of 18th century - begin of exploration of Africa. Why did they come there? To preach gospel, to heal the sick fight, slave trade.
David Livingston - he drew a map of South and Central Africa. It occurred that this is scramble for Africa (bogactwa) - it attracted France, Britain…
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