COLONISATION OF AMERICA
1497 - Newfoundland - first colony
1584 - Sir Walter Raleigh - Virginia, but it didn't survive
1607 - first settlement of Jamestown - survived (established during the reign of James I)
1620 - Mayflower - Plymouth, Massachusetts - puritans
1632 - Maryland - religiously tolerant area
1664 - capture of New Amsterdam from the Dutch - renamed: New York
Seven Years War left nation In deep debts. British decided to tax colonies (in was not “lawful” - no taxation without representation - representants of colonies weren't in Parliament).
1773 - Boston Tea Party (American Revolution/Independence War 1775) it was provoked by establishment of new tax - and obligation to buy taxed tea from East India Company. Chests (skrzynie) of tea were thrown into Boston Labour.
4th July 1776 - Declaration of Independence - Americans won independence by Peace of Versailles. Revolution ended in 1783. For Britain it was disastrous (they lost everything except Canada). Contemporaries found the independence of America bad news because:
American colonies were the market for British
Source of rare materials
Source of money for Britain
Radicals (Tom Paine, Edmund Burke) - supported American colonies. They claimed everyone has the right to democracy and independence. Loss of American colonies wasn't the end of British Empire. It still was expanding in:
Canada (British Loyalist deserted USA and went to Canada, which was still British colony)
1801 - Act of Union - Great Britain + Ireland = United Kingdom. Irish could elect some MPs and peers to House of Lords - they were now represented in British government.
HISTORY OF IRELAND - REVISION
Conquered neither by Romans nor by Anglo-Saxons
Land of monasteries
Ireland's Golden Age - ended with arrival of Vikings. Viking invasion had also positive result: it forced small kingdoms to unite to fight together against invaders.
Dublin was founded by Vikings
1169 (12th century) - conquered by Norman Lords
Henry II forced Irish chefs to accept his lordship. The Dublin was capital. Norman Lords were in east-south. English control was really visible in Dublin - The Pale (area under control of English).
Henry VIII - persuaded Irish Parliament to recognise him King of Ireland. They did not recognise reformation (they rebelled to avoid destruction of monasteries). Ireland could tempt Catholic Europe as a place from which they could attack England. Tudors destroyed Gaelic way of life - we could say that Ireland was first English colony.
Province of Ulster - strongly under English influence. Native Irish were forced to leave their homes. Colonisation of Ulster (most Catholic area), by which it was transformed into Protestant colony of English.
… to live in army camps (to separate them from new ideas from ordinary people). Britain is an island, so danger was lesser.
1793 - England had to go to war with France, they were defeated by Napoleon and forced to ally with him.
Britain decided to fight with French at sea.
1805 - Battle of Trafalgar - Admiral Horatio Nelson destroyed French-Spanish Armada, which gave him an immortal glory.
Arthur Wellesley - 1st Duke of Wellington - won many battles with Napoleon Napoleon was weakened by his escapade to Russia in 1814. Wellesley defeated Napoleon at Waterloo in Belgium in 1815.
British Empire was now country number one. Pax Britannica (1815-1914) - it lasted until World War I. there was peace, so Empire could extend. British controlled key trade routes.
GEORGE IV 1820-30
Because of George…
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