Wykład - republican Britain

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REPUBLICAN BRITAIN (1649-1660)
It was only time since 1066 when Britain had no monarch.
Who ruled? Rump Parliament. They decided:
To abolish office of the king
To abolish House of Lords
To abolish Anglican Church
Act: England = Commonwealth and a Free State
House of Commons were supreme authority
Executive powers: taken up by Council of State
Oliver Cromwell's parliament was far more severe.
SCOTLAND
Scots were shocked by king's execution. They promised to Charles II (son of the executed king) that they will help him to bring back English throne. But was a failure and Charles II had to escape to France.
IRELAND
Cromwell decided to punish Irish Catholics for Protestant's executions. 1641 - towns: Drogheda, Wexford were captured and a lot of Irish Catholics were killed. PARLIAMENT - ARMY
Tense between army and parliament and parliament itself had a different groups which quarreled with each other.
Levellers - wanted everybody to be on the same level. They campaigned against social distinction, they wanted to replace monarchy and nobility.
Thet wanted every man over 21 have ability to choose MPs and religious tolerance.
Constant disagreements caused in 1653 end of Republican Britain and Protectorate was established. The country was ruled only with the army. Oliver Cromwell became really unpopular. He ruled the country with iron hand.
WHY WAS CROMWELL GOVERNMENT SO UNPOPULAR:
Strict censorship
No celebration
No theatres/pubs etc.
It was even forbidden to celebrate Christmas and Easter
1657 - Cromwell was offered a throne, but he refused it.
1658 - Cromwell died, and was succeeded by his son Richard (but he was completely failure). He couldn't control the army and commanders quarreled. The Protectorate survived for 8 months.
1659 - time of anarchy, no Lord Protector, no Parliament. Rump Parliament had been dismissed because they couldn't find consensus.
1660 - Resolution. English people decided they need a king. They knew that Charles I's son - also Charles is in France so they invited him to come back to England.
CHARLES II - Stuarts back on the throne 1660-85
Actions of Cromwell cancelled. He decided to punish only those who were directly responsible for his father death. He knew he couldn't punish everyone because of danger of rebellion.
He gave Parliament duties. He lived in France - so he was attracted to Catholic Church.
1673 - Test Act set by Parliament - any Catholic was forbidden to hold public office - INCLUDING the king. As the result of fear from Catholics first political parties were formed:


(…)

… he became last Catholic monarch
JAMES II He wanted to restore Catholicism. People feared that the story of Bloody Mary will happen one more time. James appointed many Roman Catholics to important positions and they were allowed to study. It was a mistake. The Declaration of Indulgence (=toleration) - abolished laws against Roman Catholics and Nonconformists. It was also a mistake.
1688 - James…
… theories: government was based upon consent of the people. It was Parliament, not king who was the main power. King's power should be limited and he should consult decisions with Parliament.
1701 - Act of Settlement - only a Protestant could inherit the throne. If Mary had no children (which was very likely) - then the throne should go to her protestant sister Anne. This act is binding (obowiązujący) even…
… he became last Catholic monarch
JAMES II He wanted to restore Catholicism. People feared that the story of Bloody Mary will happen one more time. James appointed many Roman Catholics to important positions and they were allowed to study. It was a mistake. The Declaration of Indulgence (=toleration) - abolished laws against Roman Catholics and Nonconformists. It was also a mistake.
1688 - James…
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