England during the 17th century

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England during the 17th century
- The Stuart monarchs were less successful than the Tudors. They quarreled with Parliament and this resulted in Civil War. - When James I became the first English king of the Stuart dynasty, he was already king of Scotland, so the crowns of these two countries were already united. Although their parliaments and administrative and judicial systems continued to be separate, their linguistic differences were lessened in this century. The kind of Middle English spoken in lowland Scotland had developed into a written language known as `Scots'. However, the Scottish Protestant church adopted English rather than Scots bibles. This, and the glamour of the English court where the king sat, caused modern English to become the written standard in Scotland as well. - In the 16th century religion and politics became inextricably linked. This link became even more intense in the 17th century. At the beginning of the century, some people tried to kill the king because he wasn't Catholic enough. By the end of the century, another king had been killed, partly because he seemed too Catholic, and yet another had been forced into exile for the same reason. - This was the context in which, during the century, Parliament established its supremacy over the monarchy in Britain. Anger grew in the country, at the way that the Stuart monarchs raised money, especially because they did not get the agreement of the House of Commons to do so first. This was against ancient tradition. In addition, ideological Protestantism, especially Puritanism, had grown in England. -Puritans regarded many if the practices of the Anglican Church, and also its hierarchical structure, as immortal. Some of them thought the luxurious lifestyle of the king and his followers was immortal too. They were also fiercely anti-Catholic and suspicious of the apparent sympathy towards Catholicism of the Stuart monarchs. - Puritan - a member of a Protestant religious group in the 16th and 17th century who wished to make religion simpler and less ceremonial, Most broke away from the Church on England at the end of 17th century and many went to America to find religious freedom. In the US, Puritan beliefs have had a strong influence on the American way of life. - This conflict led to the Civil War, which is popularly remembered as contest between fun-loving, aristocratic, royalist `Cavaliers', who nevertheless were wrong in their beliefs, and over-serious, puritan parliamentarian `Roundheads' (because of the style of their haircuts), who nevertheless had right on their side. - The roundheads were victorious by 1645, although the war periodically started up again until 1649. The war ended with complete victory of the parliamentary forces. The king (Charles I) was captured and became the first monarch in Europe to be executed (1649) after a formal trial for crimes against his people. The leader of the parliamentary army, Oliver Cromwell, became, Lord Protector ... zobacz całą notatkę

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