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MONARCHY - The UK is the most ancient (starodawny, starożytny) secular institution in the world.
WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR - 1ST English monarch
MONARCHY WAS BROKEN ONCE (THERE WAS A REPUBLIC).
The continuity was broken 1649-1660 (11 years). There was a struggle between Parliament and monarch, monarch lost and was beheaded. Oliver Cromwell became a president. When he died, they asked monarch's son to gain the throne, and monarchy was restored.
THE PRESENT QUEEN
House of Windsor - she descended from Queen Victoria (Saxe-Cobourg-Gotha dynasty - German name). But there was a conflict with Germany during the World War I, so they decided to change name to House of Windsor.
1953 - present Queen started reigning
COAT OF ARMS
THE ROYAL TITLE
Realms and territories - now: dependent territories (at that time: colonies)
Head of Commonwealth - British colonies decided that it's easier to not break ties with Great Britain and to cooperate
Defender of the Faith - head of church, the title was given to Henry VIII (ironically) because before he broke ties with the Pope, he had been fought on pope's side and the Pope gave him that title
THE ROYAL STANDARD
Harp is Welsh.
Head of executive (she officially nominates PM and important ministers)
Part of legislature - all bills must be signed by the Queen
Head of judiciary - she gives appointments to highest judges and some Members of Parliament
Head of the Armed Forces - she nominates highest people, they are on the Queen's order
Head of the Commonwealth - officially (!) she leads them
*In practice she does not too much.
THE SEAT (rezydencja) OF THE MONARCH IN GREAT BRITAIN Buckingham Palace
Palace of Holyroodhouse (Scotland)
Balmoral Castle (private house in Scotland)
Charles - Prince of Wales (Edward I made the tradition - his son was first who was given the title. Welsh people did not want to have a king who spoke English, Edward I's son spoke Welsh) - then William, Harry
Anne - Princes Royal
Edward QUEEN'S DUTIES
Open and dissolves Parliament
… regiments presents flags in front of the Queen
The Garter Ceremony (Windsor Castle) - long black Ropes of the Garter wore by people who own Order of the Garter
The Royal Maundy - connected with Thursday before Eastern. Every year in different church. People important in particular parish get Maundy coins (they get two purses with Maundy coins and normal money). Amount of money depends of Queen's age (age…
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