The Grammar-Translation Method-opracowanie

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The Grammar-Translation Method (Classical Method)
The grammar-translation method is a method of foreign or second language teaching which makes use of translation and grammar study as the main teaching and learning activities:
long, elaborate explanations of grammar - deductive
tests are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis
focusing on the form and inflection of words
translating sentences from the target language into the mother one (the only drill)
The GTM was the traditional way Latin and Greek were taught in Europe from 1840s to 1940s. In the 19th century it began to be used to teach “modern” languages such as French, German and English, and it is still used in many countries today. A typical lesson would consist of the presentation of a grammatical rule, a study of lists of vocabulary (lists of isolated words), and a translation exercise. Because the GTM emphasizes reading rather than the ability to communicate in a language, there was a reaction to it on the 19th century, and there was later a greater emphasis on the teaching of spoken language. It requires few specialized on the part of teachers:
tests of grammar taught are easy constituents and can be objectively scored
classes are taught in mother tongue
no attention is given to pronunciation
reading before speaking
reading difficult classical texts began early
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