Norman French period of borrowing (11th-12th century):
Religious terms: prophet, saint, Baptist, miracle, paradise, sacrament, etc.
Social and political terms: prince, dame, master, court, rent, poor, rich, prison, crown, purple, prove, etc.
Terms of architecture: in particular, the word castle.
The Anglo-Saxon did not build in stone (big buildings were made of timber or of flint cobble).
The word castle comes from Latin, meaning an enclosed or fortified encampment. As soon as the Normans arrived, they built castles.
In the Peterborough Chronicle, the first line of the poem on the death of William the Conqueror (died 1086) is “Castelas he let wyrcean”, “He had castles built”.
This line signals linguistically the imposition of a new structure on the English landscape.
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