Wykład - The Romans

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Romans - first invaders who had written language, so their invasion was a turning point for Britain
Nomadic groups - don't stay at one place
Barrow, burial mound - kurhan
Beaker - bell-shaped thing used for drinking - puchar
Ploughing - orka
Precious - drogocenny, szlachetny
Privilege - przywilej
WHAT TO REMEMBER: Britain was not always an island and before Roman invasion it was settled by Celts.
Prehistory - history
Julius Caesar - his first attempt was not successful because of bad weather conditions, second - was.
richness in natural resources (forests, land, mineral: iron, silver, lead)
mild climate (good for farming) - agriculture was the base of Roman economy
GB produced a lot of food
Celts of GB offered help to the Celts of Gaul (against the Empire), Romans weren't pleased with that fact
Pacifying barbarian tribes was generally regarded a major factor to gain military glory and prestige
They could not conquer “Caledonia” (Scotlend), so they built Hadrian's Wall as a defence against the Scotish Picts
They conquered Wales, but they were not interested in those lands
BOUDICA - it was a queen which revolted against Romans because they betrayed her husband (they promised to protect his family and lands in exchange for (w zamian za) taking part of those lands, but after his death they take whole land). Boudica was flogged (chłostać biczem) and her daughters were raped, so she went furious and burnt few Roman cities. Finally she lost the battle.
Literacy increased
They brought law
Language (Latin became official language, mostly in towns) - bilingualism - Celtic language was spoken as well
-chester, -caster, -cester - a Roman towns end up with termination like that
Romans brought peace to the island (tribal fights between Celts stopped)
Advancement (water supply, under-floor heating)
Villas appeared in the countryside (luxury houses)
Roads and bridges were built - economic life increased
Romanization - visible in style, architecture, jewellery, leather shoe etc.
Urban expansion - Romans were town-dwellers (=inhabitant), a lot of public buildings were situated in their towns (temples, public baths, courts, forums, etc.). Roman towns were surrounded by walls to feel more secure.
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