3-4 short tests (10 min) - basic questions
1 absence per semester allowed
Credit - “zaliczenie” - based on the tests, participation, attendance
Illustrated history of GB
History of GB as easy as pie
We don't have to know every detail, what we need is to select important information (pay special attention to the words in bold on our lecture)
ORIGIN OF CONTEMPORARY NAME OF A COUNTRY
Albion - albios (lat. White) - probably because of White Cliffs of Dover
British (Britons were Celts)
15 century - England (=the land of Angles. They inhabited middle part of island)
The UK of GB and Ireland
The UK of GB and Northern Ireland
1604 - Scotland and England started have the same king - personal union (James VI of Scotland was also James I of England)
1707 - political union, the Act of Union - Scotland and England started to have the same parliament
1801 - Ireland joined GB, Act of Union, Ireland was ruled from London. Not everybody was happy about that - 20 century: War of Independence, Ireland was divided into 2 parts:
Northern Ireland - Belfast
The Irish Free State - Dublin (then the Republic of Ireland)
Commander - dowódca
Infantry - soldiers who fight on foot - piechota
Chariot - a horse-drawn vehicle - rydwan
Cavalry - soldiers fighting on horseback - kawaleria
Levy - a recruit - rekrut
Javelin - a light spear - oszczep
Combat - a fight - walka
Ambush - a surprise attack from a hidden place - zasadzka
Garrison - troops stationed in a town/ fort - garnizon
Siege - surrounding of a town/ fortress - oblężenie (miasta, twierdzy)
Raider - a person who makes a surprise attack - najeźdźca
Chieftain - a leader of a tribe/ clan - wódz
Usurper - a leader by force - uzurpator Each Roman legion had an establishment of over 5000 man, mostly heavy infantry.
The permanent Roman warriors were the aristocracy; they favorite weapon was the chariot.
The exact (dokładny, precyzyjny) status of a cavalry is uncertain: they were probably men who could provide their own horses.
The British army consisted mostly of levies summoned (zebranych) from the farms.
The Britons depended on a long slashing (tnący) sword, whereas the Roman used javelins.
In hand-to-hand combat (walka wręcz) the Britons were at a disadvantage faced with the armoured Romans.
The Celts were successful in their surprise attacks and ambushes, thus the Roman commanders ... zobacz całą notatkę