THE HOUSE OF LORDS
House of Lords is older than House of Commons. There are many traditions, so not many things can be changed.
1957 - Life Peerage Act - at the very beginning everybody with the title of lord could participate in HoL debates. Act established “life lords” - their title is only for them and after their death it disapears. Titles ennobled (nadane) before 1957 are still passed to sons after their fathers. 1999 - House of Lords Act - Before 1999 everybody who had hereditary title was in the House of Lords, but they have to limit members, because there was to many of them. Now not all people who have hereditary title are in House of Lords (some of them were not intrested in politics, not active, don't even come to the debates).
2005 - Constitutional Reform Act - till House of Lords worked as a Final Court of Appeal (e.g. case of Pinochet was judged by HoL). Now there are no judges in HoL, there's a Supreme Court (Sąd Najwyższy). MEMBERS
The Chancellor - few years ago was the chair person (przewodniczący) - it was the same position as Speaker in HoC. Now he is 2nd important person, always in government, he is Head of Courts.
Lord Speaker (= Speaker in HoC) - since 2006 - he presides over (nadzorować, przewodniczyć) the debates. Differences between Speaker and Lord Speaker:
Lord Speaker is ordinary member - he organizes meetings, but he has no authority over the other members (he cannot ask anybody to leave)
Lord Speaker votes like everybody else
Speaker has much higher position than Lord Speaker
Leader of the House of Lords - responsible for technical organization of the house.
MEMBERS OF HOUSE OF LORDS:
Lords Spiritual (Lordowie Duchowni) - clergymen
Lords Temporal - everybody else
LORDS SPIRITUAL - highest people in Church of England (Church in Scotland has no hierarchy). Two bishops:
Canterbury - archbishop of Canterbury is the most important clergyman of English Church
York - one of the most prestigious + 21 bishops of the Church of England (e.g. London, Durham, Winchester)
Hereditary peers (par - członek Izby Lordów) - (!) Before 1957!!! They choose 90 hereditary peers to be in the House of Lords
Earl of Marshal - responsible for official ceremonies (funerals, coronation)
Lord Great Chamberlain (szambelan) - responsible for Palace of Westminster, at state Opening of Parliament he walks in front of the Speaker
Earl of Marshal and Lord Great Chamberlain ALWAYS inherit (dziedziczyć) the title.
Life peers (dożywotni tytuł para) - every lord after 1957. Title is ennobled for important politicians, actors, singers (Elton John), Prime Minister usually gets the title after being head of the government. There's about 50 new lords each year.
… OF LORDS
Examining government work
Examining European proposal They DO NOT deal with the finances
Throne for the Queen. Lord Speaker sits on Woolsack (poduszka z wełny, fotel Lorda Kanclerza w Izbie Lordów). Why wool? Because wool made Britain very rich and powerful country. Wool in the Woolsack is from different parts of British Imperium (also from colonies) - it shows connections…
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