It is the smallest complex element of syntactic structure (a group of words that form a grammatical unit)
No-subject predicate structure, e.g.
A beautiful lady in a floral dress PHRASE
A phrase has got a head (the central dominant element of a phrase)
Bad weather NP, weather=head
Walking quickly VP, walking=head
Very fast AdvP
On the table PP
Element that co-occur with the head are modifiers (they modify the head)
Pre-modifier, e.g. expensive camera
Post-modifier, e.g. the book in a paperback
The fat lady who is wearing a floral dress.
Grouping together and combining words in a phrase, or a clause can be referred to as a construction
There are endocentric and exocentric constructions.
Examples of endocentric constructions:
Endocentric construction - the group of words as a whole is syntactically equivalent to one of its elements - the element(s) play the same syntactic role as the whole construction
Clever boy (subordinative-one element (modifier) is subordinate to the other element)
Men and women (coordinative-elements belong to the same syntactic category-they are equal in status)
Exocentric constructions (made up of words belonging to different syntactic categories - no head and modifier can be distinguished because they are equally important). My father smokes
Mini exercise 1) walk quickly 2) cars and buses 3) the sun rose (exocentric-equally important) 4) a high building (endocentric, subordinate)
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