What a teacher needs to know to teach grammar:
pattern and form ( e.g. have, past participle)
lexical restrictions ( since/for)
concept/function or meaning ( experiences) when we use it
common problems ( confusion with sentences)
Not many structures but lots of model sentences were presented to greatest benefit of younger rather than adult learners. This method used repetition and pattern drilling
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSYS THEORY
Potential problem areas can be predicted by analysing differences between grammars which need to be studied and compared in order to improve language teaching
This approach advocates cognitive i.e. conscious awareness of the structure of the target language. The conscious study of grammatical rules will ensure practical command of the language in question. It is better to teach rules than structures.
COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING
CLT suggests that grammar is one element language speakers use to express meanings and it should taught meaningfully rather than through repetition and meaningless drills. Items should be taught in context and the hole context has to be presented.
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITUION THEORY
Both adults and children can acquire foreign language rules unconsciously from input if the conditions of learning are right, that is if the input is at the right level and if it is comprehensible, if there is an emphasis on meaning, if the environment is anxiety-free and if the learner is allowed a “silent period” - they will speak when ready, after enough input.
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