History of the BSR

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Fragment notatki:

History of the BSR
(origins of states, empires of the region, the impact of the history on relations building in the region)
Elements of collective memory:
Common language
Common belief, practices, customs
All concepts based on culture
Territory - national and regional identity
Perception of the BSR using Huntington's theory:
As a uniform entity with shared history and culture and a “Nordic” identity. As an area of cultural clashes with different historical parameters(Baltic Region - European region; Cold War: West vs. East region)
were very frequent and viewed by most contemporaries as natural
war was part of everybody life for many people in the Baltic Sea Region
the wars were means of gaining control of water routs - because a defining trait of the whole region
High influence on Baltic history have co-existing religions and ideologies. From Orthodoxy, Catholicism and Protestantism to Greek Catholic Church, and before WWII - Jewish. When it comes to ideologies and societies - the individualist Western Christian and the Jewish traditions on the one hand, and the collectivist Orthodox and Marxist-Leninist traditions, on the other hand. There is a lot of differences in the Region, rooted in history, between societies. Very important is also perceptions and understanding of history - past has a direct influence on the present and the future. History relates to collective memory and identity - divides people into “us” and “them”. Baltic Region consist of diversity - different identity, ideologies, collective memory, beliefs - that's why is hard to talk about “Baltic history”.
“Baltic” people - not every notion in the region feel “Baltic identity”. The Scandinavians, the Germans, the Finns, the Estonians and the Latvians are Baltic without question, but what about Russians, Poles, Lithuanians, Belarusians and Ukrainians? It hard to build one society with one identity in such extensive region, and such divers notion. Baltic region - The notion of a Baltic Region that would connect Russia, the Baltic States and Poland with the Scandinavian countries and Germany, can be back to the history, Soviet political idea of creating their zone of influence in northern Europe. Nordic countries forming a modern Hanseatic League centered on the Baltic Sea (New Hansa) in 1980. Although the notion of the New Hansa faded away after the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union, international co-operation has developed among the states facing the Baltic Sea. There is a Baltic Council and a lot of other institutions promoting contact and the exchange of goods, people and ideas. There is even a Baltic University.


… Teutonic Order (Zakon Krzyżacki)
Aim: to bring Christianisation into the region
Once established in Prussia, the Order became involved in campaigns against its neighbours, the Kingdom of Poland (motherfuckers), the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie)
Strong urban economy, hired many merchants
1410 - Battle of Tanneberg (Grundwald)! :D Demise of Teutonic Order - In 1525, the Order…
…, personal relations between political leaders, social groups and individuals etc.
Viking Age (800-1050)
Dannish Empire (1150-1220)
The Hanseatic League (1282-1525)
The Teutonic Order(1226-1410)
Kalmar Union (1397-1521)
The Lithuanian-Polish Commonwealth (1386-1795 rozbiory)
Swedish Empire/Stockholm Period (1560-1721)
Russian Dominance (1701-1917)
… from profitable business by controlling ports and ship routes
Main trade goods: amber (bursztyn), furs, grain (zboże), salt, wax, flax (len), hops (chmiel)
During the 14th and 15th centuries when the Hanseatic League was at the height of its dominance, more than 100 cities and towns were part of this trade network. German influence of the Hanseatic League
Ad 4. Kalmar Union (1397-1521)
The Kalmar…
… a consequence of the outcome of the Napoleonic wars. Russia played leading role in Vienna, 1815. In the nineteenth century Russia conquered land in the east reaching pacific ocean but at the same time it was loosing its position in the Baltic region (it was due to revolutions in Europe and the rise of Prussia and creation then the German Empire in 1871). With the death of Alexander I the Dekabristy came into…
…: Prussia and Austria began a fight about the leading German state. Prussia at the same time remained a Baltic power. In 1866 Prussia defeated Austria in the battle of Koniggratz.
Centralisation of the administration, economic reforms, the creation of profit army Prussia took a lion share in Poland's division in 1772-1795
The German chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, proclaimed the King of Prussia, William…
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