Features of the BSR: multiculturalism
(populating the Baltic region, religions in the region, values in the BSR, cultural exchange,
languages families and groups)
-After more than 100,000 years in Africa the ancestors of modern man (Cro Magnon) moved north, making their way into the Middle.
-Then Homo sapiens sapiens spread over Asia, Europe, Australia, the Americas and finally to the Pacific islands. The origins of the BSR:
The entire BR was covered by Pleistocene ice sheet
20,000 to 15,000 years B.C. - the ice sheet retreated and new land was uncovered, As biological life established, larger animals of prey followed
The people moving into the Baltic region were hunters and gatherers - these early inhabitants were probably nomadic. Period of warm climate lasted from the Neolithic Stone Age (approximately 6,000 B.C.) well into the Bronze Age (4,000 B.C.)
Bronze Age: development of agricultural, animal husbandry were introduced, goats and sheep were imported from the Middle East.
As lifestyles changes from hunting to a more sedentary ones, populations started to grow. Although populations increased as a result of the introduction of agriculture, northern Europe was sparsely populated.
Settlement based on language present in the region:
Great Migration (around 400 A.D. to 600 A.D.) derives mainly from the records made in Rome of the contacts between Germanic and Slavic speaking peoples with the Greco-Roman world.
The origins of Estonian, Finish and Hungarian languages are to be found amongst the ancient tribes that settled the taiga region of northern Russia (nomadic hunters)
The Finno-Ugric groups
These Finno-Ugric groups represent languages that were once widely spread in these northern stretches of present-day Russia, from the Baltic to beyond the river Ob, and in Hungary. (Most of them is spoken by small minorities, apart from Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian).
Saami people represent and an indigenous (rdzenni) people in northern Scandinavia - ancestors of the Saami must have been isolated from other human population that make them uniquely different
Norwegians (and Swedes) gradually colonized the north and forced Saami people further north. However, small groups of Saami are still engaged in reindeer husbandry as far south as the province of Jamtland in central Sweden.
Indo-European family of languages includes a wide range of interrelated languages spoken throughout Europe, Iran and Northern India
Theories explaining diversity of languages (All native languages of the Baltic region, except the Finno-Ugric tongues, belong to the Indo-European family of languages (Europe, Iran and northern India).
… from a habitat in central and northern Europe. From this period the distinction between East Slavic, West Slavic and South Slavic languages originated. The region under religious division
A borderline between East and West - concerning religion.
The “Icon Wall” has replaced the “Iron Curtain” ( the “Iron Curtain” was a real barrier; the “Icon Wall”, taken as a symbol eastern liturgy and church architecture, is a cultural border). It is the result of the historical development in the Middle Ages that established the boundaries between the Western Church, under the leadership of Rome, and the Eastern Churches (Rome vs. Constantinople) . A borderline between North and South (down in the 16th C - Reformation)
The map of religion in the Baltic area:
The Orthodox Church in the East: Russia, Belarus and…
… Jewish population of the world (90%) lived in the region, chiefly in Poland, Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania. Today they number some 200,000 persons in the Baltic region.
The repatriation and mass deportation of the German population from the East Prussia, where Russian dominance was established (Konigsberg-Kaliningrad) The impact of labor migrants and refugees contributed to religious pluralism…
…, Estonia. More People are social engaged in the Nordic countries, demonstrating a post-materialist values
Religion is more important to the Eastern part of BSR - more important in Poland, Lithuania compared to Estonia, Denmark, Sweden. Poland can be seen as a kind of cultural outsider in the Baltic context, scoring comparably high on the traditional-conservative values and lower on social capital values…
... zobacz całą notatkę