the aim of a drill is to give students rapid practice in using a structural item
advantage: any mistakes
disadvantage: not very creative
they are mechanical activities used for practicing a specific language item in a controlled way
There are various types of drills:
repetition drill - repetition after the model sentence exactly the same structure or intonation; it is completely mechanical and can be done absent-mindedly
simple substitution drill - model sentence is given and some other word(s) to substitute in a given place in the model sentence, students are required to substitute a single item only
variable substitution drill - both the model sentence and the prompts are given, students are required to carry out desired changes not simply substituting items but also adopt form where necessary
progressive substitution drill - teacher gives the model sentence and than prompts which need to be used in different parts of the newly formed sentence, this requires thinking and alteration of other words as well.
response practice - question - answer activities
transformational drill/conversion - they are used to practice changes, changing affirmative sentences into questions or into negatives, indirect statements into direct, active voice into passive etc.
expansion - given a sentence and an additional word, it has to be inserted into the sentence in the proper place
deletion - some elements are deleted from the sentence
completion - completing a sentence
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