Wykład - William IV

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WILLIAM IV (1830-37)
Younger brother of George IV. He was not trained, he had no idea how to rule the country. He was 64 when he got the throne (oldest monarch to be crowned).
1830 - Tory Government, believed that only property owners should be in Parliament. They wanted no reforms.
Whigs - they believed there is need to reform. 1832 - Reform Bill was accepted by Lords. It was political revolution:
Number of voters increased 50%
New industrial towns were now represented in parliament (urban society)
It did not improve everything - distribution of MPs was still not fair
VICTORIA (1837-1901)
Personal union Britain-Hanover ended with her reign because in Hanover Salic Law was recognized (throne cannot be inherited by woman). She had German husband: Albert of Saxe-Cobourg Gotha, he had title of Prince Consort (książę małżonek).
1861 - happy marriage ended with dead of her husband. Period of semi-mourning (depression). She was called “Widow of Windsor”, because Windsor Castle was her home. She refused to be seen in public (it was dangerous, many criticized her, persuaded her to take more interest in country. By the time she died, monarchy was better loved among British.
She was writing a diary “Our life in the Highlands” - it contributed to her popularity too, because for the first time ordinary people could know something about life of their monarch. She was less powerful than previous monarchs, but had more respect, ruled more lands and more people.
Age of political and social reforms - period of peace, Enlightenment
National Petition 1839 - signed by chartists, demands in the document were refused by the House of Commons. Politicians were not ready yet, all changes happened, but much later.
Still riots of workers (they wanted to be better paid, work in better conditions). Parliament acted against them and punished rioters severely, because they still remembered French revolution.
PRIME MINISTER: ROBERT PEEL He made some good decisions which saved the government, there were not rapid changes
1846 - abolished Corn Law of 1815 - it was heavy blow for poor people because price of corn had been really high and their diet consisted on corn in those days
Problem of crime - he established regular police forces in London. From his nick “Bob” - British police are nicknamed “Bobbies”
Peel was a Tory - but Tories felt betrayed by him, he was too independent
1846-65 - Lord Palmerston (Whig=liberal)
1885 - 2 Prime Ministers:
Benjamin Disraeli - Jew, Tory, favourite of Victoria
William Ewart Gladstone - Victoria disliked him


… serving British sovereign
EDWARD VII (1901-1910)
He had surname of his dad - Saxe-Cobourg Gotha dynasty. Only one who belonged to German dynasty was his son George V.
GEORGE V (1910-36)- son of Edward VII. He abdicated because he fell in love with American woman, who was twice divorced.
GEORGE VI - brother of George V.
ELISABETH II - present Queen.
Industrial, economic…
… world's population and 1/3 of world's area
A scientific power Charles Darwin “On the origin of species” 1859 - his theory was later used to talk about better and worse races
1884 - Fabian society in London George Bernard Show (Irish playwright) H. G. Wells - English science-fiction author
Emmeline Pankhurst - wanted right to vote for women
The country avoided a revolution
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