Wykład - Królowa Anna

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QUEEN ANNE
Mary I's protestant daughter. Jacobites decided to act - Jacobite revolt 1715, but they failed.
1745 - another Jacobites' attempt. James II's grandson Prince Charles Edward Stuart (called Bonny Prince Charlie) landed on the coast of Scotland in 1746, but was defeated by British army at Culloden. Now Scotland was punished for supporting Jacobites - real cruelty, many Highlanders were killed or sent to America, tartan and bagpipes were forbidden (to crush Scottish traditions).
HISTORY OF SCOTLAND - REVISION
Scottish Gaelic name of Scotland: “Alba”
Roman called Scotland Caledonia, it was inhabited by Scottish Picts, who painted their faces blue
Death of heir Alexander III and Margaret Maid of Norway caused The Great Cause - Edward I was asked for help and chose John Balliol
William Wallace - Wars of Scottish Independence 1296-1328
Robert Bruce - new leader in Scotland - Robert I
Battles for independence for over 20 years - victory at The Battle of Bannockburn 1314 and Scotland finally won its independence
James I - England and Scotland joined by personal union
1707 - political union - England and Scotland have the same parliament and law
SCOTTISH SYMBOLS:
Kilt - knee-length garment
Royal Stewart Tartan (used by Queen Elisabeth II)
Thistle: Scottish legend - thistle warned warriors about Vikings (because they stepped on thistles and shouted)
St. Andrew's Cross
GERMANS ON ENGLISH THRONE - GREGORIAN ENGLAND - THE HANOVERIANS - 1714-1901
George I (1714-27) - great grandson of James I
George II (1727-60) - son of James I
George III (1760-1820)
George IV (1820-30)
William IV (1830-37)
Queen Victoria (1837-1901)
ACT OF SETTLEMENT 1701 Queen Anne died childless. The throne was supposed to go to James I's granddaughter - Sophia, but she died before Queen Anne, so crown went to Sophia's son - George.
Tories still wanted the deposed James II's son to take the throne (if he had given up Catholicism he could get it, but he didn't).
George I didn't trust the Tories. He allowed Whighs to form their government. That's why rule of first two Georges is called Whiggism. Tories wouldn't have returned to power for over half-century. Septennial Act - extended duration of Parliament to 7 years.
Unlike rest of Europe, in England there was NO absolute monarchy. Power of monarch was limited by constitution. Real policy was done by king's ministers. With German monarch (foreigner) it was easier for Parliament to control monarch.


(…)

… system -> especially CABINET.
ERA OF WALPOLLAN SUPREMACY (ROBINOCRACY)
Robert Walpole - greatest political leader during the reign of George I and George II, for over 20 years. He was leader of Whighs and now he is considered first Prime Minister (but this term was not used in his times). He came to power as a result of financial ability - he had capital (money) and wanted to invest it in Trading Companies in Indies. Cost of a share in Trading Company became really expensive. 1720 - South Sea Company offered to pay off national debts (they wanted monopoly rights to trade on South Seas for this favour). How could be country in debts? In 1694 - Bank of England was established and government borrowed money from it. Company decided to raise money by selling shares. People suddenly lost their money (went bankrupt). Economic crisis called South Sea Bubble. Walpole was the one who restored public confidence - it was first step to make company socially responsible for interests of the public.
Walpole claimed that ministers should work in small groups - he developed Cabinet. If group of ministers made decision, all of them were responsible for the decision. If somebody disagreed, he should resign…
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