Proficiency Test might use similar test items (like achievement test), but would not be linked to any particular textbook or language syllabus.
Diagnostic Test is a test which is designed to show what skills or knowledge a learner knows and does not know e.g. a diagnostic pronunciation test may be used to measure the learners' pronunciation of English sounds. Diagnostic test may be used to find out how much a learner knows before the beginning of a language course.
Placement Test is a test which is designed to place students at an appropriate level in a programme or course. The term “placement test” does not refer to what a test contains or how it is constructed, but to the purpose for which it is used. Various types of tests or testing procedures (e.g. dictation, interview, grammar test) can be used for placement purposes.
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