Great Britain during the medieval times
- Despite English rule, northern and central Wales was never settled in great numbers by Saxons or Normans. As a result the (Celtic) Welsh language and culture remained strong. Eisteddfods, national festival of welsh song and poetry, continued throughout the medieval period and still take place today. - The Anglo-Norman lords of eastern Ireland remained loyal to the English King but mostly adopted Gaelic language and customs. Gaelic language - any of the Celtic languages, especially that of Scotland (or those of Ireland or those of Isle of man). Gaelic is still spoken in some parts of Scotland and Ireland, but by fewer and fewer groups. - Although Scotland was at that time politically independent, there was a gradual switch to English language and customs in the lowland (southern) part of the country. First, the Anglo-Saxon element here was strengthened by the arrival of Saxons aristocrats who fled the Norman conquest of the country. Second, the Celtic kings saw that the adoption of an Anglo-Norman style of government would strengthen royal power. By the end of this period a cultural split had developed between: • the lowlands, where the way of life and language was similar to that in England, and • the highlands, where (Celtic) Gaelic culture and language prevailed - and where because of the mountainous landscape, the authority of the king was hard to enforce.
The medieval period - it was in this period when the Parliament began its gradual evolution into the democratic body which is today. The word `parliament' which comes from French word “parler” (to speak) was first used word in England in the 13th century to describe an assembly of nobles called together by the king. In 1295 the Model Parliament set the pattern for the future by including elected representatives from urban to rural areas. - From that period a legendary folk hero - Robin Hood comes. King Richard (1189-99) spent most of his reign fighting in the crusades(the wars between Christians and Muslims in the Middle East). While Richard was away, England was governed by his brother John, who was unpopular because of all taxes he imposed. According to legend, Robin Hood lived with his band of `mercy men' in Sherwood Forrest, outside Nottingham stealing from the rich and giving to the poor. He was constantly hunted by the local sheriff (the royal representative) but was never captured.
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