The theme is the central idea that emerges from a literary work's treatment of its subject-matter. While the subject of a work is described concretely in terms of its action or the situation represented, its theme or themes will be described in more abstract terms (e.g. love, war, betrayal, fate, etc.).
The speaker of a poem is the voice of the poem (i.e. the speaker is the character who says the poem). The speaker and the poet are not necessarily the same although the speaker can be the poet. The speaker can also be a character that the poet creates.
The tone of a poem is the speaker's attitude toward the subject (e.g. light, serious, sentimental, solemn, bitter, ironic, etc.)
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