Communicative Language Teaching
The objective of communicative language teaching is communicative competence. Communicative competence is the ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of a language on order to form grammatically correct sentences, but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to whom. Communicative competence includes:
knowledge of the grammar and vocabulary of the language
knowledge of rules of speaking (e.g. knowing how to begin and end conversations, knowing what topics may be talked about in different types of speech events, knowing which address forms should be used with different persons one speaks to and in different situations)
knowing how to use and respond to different types of speech acts, such as: request, apology, thank, and invitation
knowing how to use language appropriately
The syllabus underlying communicative language teaching is notional or notional-functional syllabus.
Communicative language teaching is an approach to foreign or second language teaching which emphasizes that the goal of language learning is communicative competence. Learners know the aim and objectives of all exercises and activities, all learners are involved actively in classroom situational work (requesting, describing) - according to their knowledge, ability and skill. This method uses pictures, diagrams, there is a variety of means of learning. There is development of learners' self-sufficiency, security, cooperation, and initiative. The communicative approach has been developed particularly by British applied linguistics as a reaction away from grammar-based approach such as the audiolingual method. Teaching materials used with a communicative approach often:
teach the language needed to express and understand different kinds of functions such as requesting, describing, expressing likes and dislikes, etc.
are based on a notional syllabus or some other communicatively organized syllabus
emphasize the processes of communication, such as using language appropriately in different types of situations, using language to perform different kinds of tasks, e.g. to solve puzzles, to get information, etc., using language for social interaction with other people
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