SYSDBA and SYSOPER System Privileges

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SYSDBA and SYSOPER System Privileges
SYSDBA and SYSOPER are administrative privileges required to perform high-level
administrative operations such as creating, starting up, shutting down, backing up, or
recovering the database. The SYSDBA system privilege is for fully empowered database
administrators and the SYSOPER system privilege allows a user to perform basic
operational tasks, but without the ability to look at user data.
The SYSDBA and SYSOPER system privileges allow access to a database instance even
when the database is not open. Control of these privileges is therefore completely
outside of the database itself. This control enables an administrator who is granted one
of these privileges to connect to the database instance to start the database.
You can also think of the SYSDBA and SYSOPER privileges as types of connections that
enable you to perform certain database operations for which privileges cannot be
granted in any other way. For example, if you have the SYSDBA privilege, then you can
connect to the database using AS SYSDBA.
The SYS user is automatically granted the SYSDBA privilege upon installation. When
you log in as user SYS, you must connect to the database as SYSDBA or SYSOPER.
Connecting as a SYSDBA user invokes the SYSDBA privilege; connecting as SYSOPER
invokes the SYSOPER privilege. EM Express does not permit you to log in as user SYS
without connecting as SYSDBA or SYSOPER.
When you connect with the SYSDBA or SYSOPER privilege, you connect with a default
schema, not with the schema that is generally associated with your user name. For
SYSDBA this schema is SYS; for SYSOPER the schema is PUBLIC.
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