International relations

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Referaty są na temat: cold war, discuss the rise of modern China in 1949, european integration.

Discuss the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. Why would the Soviets want to do this? What was the American response? What was the nature of the Afghan resistance during the 1980s? Is it possible to argue the Soviet Union collapsed from imperial over-stretch? How did Solidarity challenge the Soviet Union in 1980? Describe the events of 1989 in Eastern Europe—and how they contributed to the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991.
During the Second World War, Britain and America were allies of Russia, fighting together against Germany. After the war, they became enemies. After Hiroshima, and particularly after 1949 when then Russian scientist Kurchatov developed the atomic bomb, politicians realised that the bomb would change international politics. Another `hot war' would kill all humankind. War would be MAD (mutually assured destruction). So America and Russia stopped short of war. They didn't declare war. But they did everything to oppose each other short of war. It was called the `cold war'. It lasted until 1989.
Causes of cold war * American fear of communist attack * Truman's dislike of Stalin* Russia's fear of the American's atomic bomb * Russia's dislike of capitalism * Russia's actions in the Soviet zone of Germany * America's refusal to share nuclear secrets * Russia's expansion west into Eastern Europe + broken election promises * Russia's fear of American attack * Russia's need for a secure western border * Russia's aim of spreading world communism
Yalta (Feb 1945)
Held during the war, on the surface, the Yalta conference seemed successful. The Allies agreed a Protocol of Proceedings to:divide Germany into four `zones', which Britain, France, the USA and the USSR would occupy after the war. bring Nazi war-criminals to trial.set up a Polish Provisional Government of National Unity 'pledged to the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon as possible'.help the freed peoples of Europe set up democratic and self-governing countries by helping them to (a) maintain law and order; (b) carry out emergency relief measures; (c) set up governments; and (d) hold elections (this was called the 'Declaration of Liberated Europe').set up a commission to look into reparations. At Yalta, the negotiations went very much in Stalin's favour, but this was because Roosevelt wanted Russian help in the Pacific, and was prepared to agree to almost anything as long as Stalin agreed to go to war with Japan. Therefore, Stalin promised that: Russia would join the war in the Pacific, in return for occupation zones in North Korea and Manchuria.Russia also agreed to join the United Nations. Although the Conference appeared successful, however, behind the scenes, tension was growing, particularly about reparations, and about Poland. After the conference, Churchill wrote to Roosevelt that `The Soviet Union has become a danger to the free world.' And on their return home both he and Roosevelt were criticised for giving away too much to the Soviets


… doctrine and explicitly connects its political ideology with military strategy. In Maoist thought, "political power comes from the barrel of the gun" 
Determined to avoid the numerous clashes since 1949 between China's warring factions, U.S. President Harry Truman initially adhered to a policy of military nonintervention with regards to Taiwan. However, with the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, Truman…
…. Consequently, Carter expanded military aid to Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Israel, and Pakistan, and went beyond surrogate forces to create a U.S. Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force (RDF).From its new headquarters, the RDF could call upon 200,000 troops from all services to meet emergencies in the gulf. It also acquired air and naval basing rights at Diego Garcia, a British atoll in the Indian Ocean, for positioning…
… (GDR, or East Germany) beginning in 1969. Influenced by Egon Bahr, who proposed "change through rapprochement" in a 1963 speech, the policies were implemented beginning with Willy Brandt, fourth Chancellor of the FRG from 1969 to 1974. Willy Brandt was a leader of the German Social Democratic Party of Germany. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1971 for his efforts to achieve reconciliation…
… American general George Marshall went to Europe. He said every country in Europe was so poor that it was in danger of turning Communist! Europe was `a breeding ground of hate'. He said that America should give $17 billion of aid to get Europe's economy going and stop Communism. Marshall said that it was up to the countries of Europe to decide what they needed. In July 1947, led by Britain and France, the…
10 September Hungary opens border with Austria, allowing East Germans to flee.
7 October Gorbachev visits East Germany, urges Erich Honecker to adopt reforms.
7 October Hungarian Communist Party becomes a socialist party.
27 October Warsaw Pact members endorse right of self-determination, renounce Brezhnev doctrine.
9 November Berlin Wall opens.
10 November Todor Zhivkov ousted and replaced by Petar…
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