Są w niej poruszane takie zagadnienia, jak: podział polskiego feminizmu na siedem fal, insurekcja kościuszkowska, feminizm w Polsce obecnie. Oprócz tego zostają nam przybliżone takie postacie, jak: Klementyna Hoffmanowa, Narcyza Żmichowska, Eleonora Zimęcka, Adam Wiślicki, Zofia Nałkowska, Róża Melcerowa, Eugenia Łoch, Wanda Nowicka.
History of polish feminism Nowadays obvious and natural privileges as the right to vote or the right to education for women is due to the activities of the nineteenth-and twentieth-century suffragists, known today as feminism. The apogee of the first wave was the march of the emancipated English women to the parliament. In that time in Poland there was no action like in United Kingdom. Poles were preparing battle standard and joining the masses for motherland in churches. It does not mean that there were no feminists in the country during this period. An example can be a feminist organisation Association of Polish Women's Equality, set by Paulina Kuczalska. After many years of forgetfulness about polish activists present feminists try to find roots of their ideology. One of patron from XV century is a Nawojka, a daughter of rector of Krakov Academy. She was pretending to be a man in order to attend the classes.
The history of feminism in Poland has traditionally been divided into seven "waves," beginning in the 19th century.
First wave (1800-1830)
The situation of women in Poland was for centuries better than in other parts of Europe. Men most of the time spent on wars, houses and manors were ruled by women. However, the state was purely male affair. Besides, marriage was a gender contract and served interests of wealth.
In the history of Polish feminism can distinguish the first wave - the term used in relation to women's suffrage movement or to obtain voting rights and legal equality. Although there were significant differences in social and historical background, can be observed also the ideological unity of the women's movement in America, Western Europe and Poland. The similarity is evident in the sphere of ideas ( aspirations, programs), but not in social practice.
In the 19th century when other Western European countries had known feminist ideas, they eventually came to Poland. The first and weakest wave came before the November uprising of 1830. It was then that Klementyna Hoffmanowa wrote the first Polish text with `feminist' features, Remembrance of a Good Mother. Although the author underlined the traditional social roles of wife and mother, she advocated the need of education for women as well. It was necessary for women to learn lanugages, history, geography, mythology, religion. This book contains topics about virtues that women should have, need of mixing beauty of body with beauty of mind, duties as a wife or mother. According to author world without women would be sad and out of order. Women and men should have equal rights, both of them are representatives of human being. In that hard times for Poland author wrote that people should cooperate with each other despite the differences of the sex.
Second wave (1830-63)
The second and stronger wave took place between the November and January uprisings. The leading advocate of feminism was the newspaper
… his article “ The Women's Cause” which was published in the newspaper “Truth” in 1889.
Adam Wiślicki published the article "Woman's Independence" in polish newspaper „Scientific Rewiev” . This piece contained radical demands for equality of the sexes in education and the professions. In the same newspaper, Aleksander Świętochowski criticized Hoffmanowa's books, which he said "transform women into…
Fourth wave (1900-1918)
The fourth - modernistic - wave of feminism reached Poland around 1900. While male writers focused on the `mysterious and mystic' nature of women, female authors were occupied with more rational aspects of feminity. One of the famous polish feminists in that time was Eliza Orzeszkowa. She was calling for women's access to proper education. For her emancipation seemed…
… small associations and foundations united more by social ties rather than organizational, and their performance is characterized by immediacy rather than systematic action.
On the other hand the slogan "feminism" average Pole connect only with one subject - abortion, because only this postulate is the most trumpeted by the mass media. For this reason, the Federation for Women and Family Planning, and…
… was to teach women independence, in the words of Zmichowska: “Learn, if you can, you should know that if you are alone and you need help, support is not waiting. “ Narcyza postulated two training programs: one practical for girls who want to devote to their family and upbringing of children and the second - scientific for talented girls. Both programs were characterized by pressure to form a national and…
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